Can member functions access protected variables?
Protected access modifier is similar to that of private access modifiers. The data members and member functions declared public can be accessed by other classes too. The class member declared as Protected are inaccessible outside the class but they can be accessed by any subclass(derived class) of that class.
Can friends access protected members?
A friend function is a function that is not a member of a class but has access to the class’s private and protected members. Friend functions are not considered class members; they are normal external functions that are given special access privileges.
Can subclass access protected members?
8 Answers. A class can only access protected members of instances of this class or a derived class. It cannot access protected members of instances of a parent class or cousin class. In your case, the Derived class can only access the b protected member of Derived instances, not that of Base instances.
What is a protected member function?
A protected member variable or function is very similar to a private member but it provided one additional benefit that they can be accessed in child classes which are called derived classes.
How do you access a protected member function of a class?
Protected members in a class are similar to private members as they cannot be accessed from outside the class. But they can be accessed by derived classes or child classes while private members cannot.
How can we access protected and private members of a class?
Protected members can only be accessed by descendants of the class, and by code in the same module. Private members can only be accessed by the class they’re declared in, and by code in the same module.
Can we inherit friend function in C++?
No. You cannot inherited friend function in C++. It is strictly one-one relationship between two classes. Friendship is neither inherited nor transitive.
Why is the friend function not allowed to access members of a class directly?
A friend function is not invoked using the class object as it is not in the scope of the class. A friend function cannot access the private and protected data members of the class directly. It needs to make use of a class object and then access the members using the dot operator.
Can friend access protected members C++?
Friend class and function in C++
Friend Class A friend class can access private and protected members of other class in which it is declared as friend. It is sometimes useful to allow a particular class to access private members of other class.
Why can’t I access a protected member from a derived class?
You cannot access protected members of an instance of a parent or cousin type. In your case, the Derived class can only access the b member of a Derived instance, not of a different Base instance. Changing the constructor to take a Derived instance will also solve the problem.
Does a subclass inherit protected methods?
A subclass inherits all of the public and protected members of its parent, no matter what package the subclass is in. If the subclass is in the same package as its parent, it also inherits the package-private members of the parent. … You can declare new methods in the subclass that are not in the superclass.
How can a protected member be accessed *?
The protected members are inherited by the child classes and can access them as its own members. But we can’t access these members using the reference of the parent class. We can access protected members only by using child class reference.